There is a growing concern globally over issues such as global warming, climate change etc. Various factors that affect the environment have now come into focus, air pollution, water pollution and soil pollution becoming the priority. While activities such as combustion of fuel, ineffective sewage treatment, and deforestation have been the primary cause of concern, we cannot overlook the effect the chemicals and pharmaceuticals have on the environment. Though there are no regulatory standards set for the levels of pharmaceutical products and by-products that can be found in the environment, it is high time that the Governments and the industry take note of the adverse effects that the pharmaceuticals are having on the environment. This paper aims to study the harmful and unwanted effects of drugs on various elements such as water, air, soil and public health.
Tanzeela Solangi, Muhammad Saad Memon and Sonia Irshad Mari
Green supply chain management (GSCM) has become a prevalent practice around the world due to increasing awareness of environmental protection and sustainability. Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) are under tremendous pressure to transform their supply chain practices into green operations to strengthen their green image and ensure environmental sustainability. The GSCM aims to accomplish sustainable development goals (SDGs) by reducing ecological damage generated by traditional supply chain practices. Thus, it is important to reorganize SMEs\' supply chain operations into GSCM practices such as green design, green production, green purchase, a green warehouse, logistics, and reverse logistic operations. This study has undertaken the case of four SMEs for assessing GSCM practices in the context of Sindh. In this research study, the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is proposed to evaluate and rank six GSCM factors (criteria) and sixteen sub-factors (sub-criteria). The AHP findings show that green design is a top priority factor following green purchasing and green production for implementing the GSCM practices. This study intends to aid SMEs in adopting GSCM practices in Sindh.